The Best All In One Car Seat Pros, Cons & Recommendations
Welcome to the best all in one car seat award show!
I’ve spent the last month driving around for miles to test out the best all in one car seats with my three kids. Besides the never-ending miles and scowls, I’ve talked with other moms, read reviews, checked recalls while my husband had the time of life at home in peace and quiet; honey, it’s your turn now…
Finding the perfect all-in-one car seat comes down to three things the space available, the safety features, and your budget. As soon as you know these, it will be easy to find the perfect fit for your needs.
I know all too well how long it takes to find the right car seat. I have three kids, so I’ve put them to good use so you will save time and avoid frustrations. By reading this article you will find the right all in one car seat I’m sure about that.
I’m ranking the top 6 all in one car seats on safety features, comfort, perks, ease of install, washability, and of course, price.
Frankly, picking any car seat from the list below is a guaranteed winner. There are only champions on my list. You can’t go wrong with these.
Let’s see those seats already!
In a Hurry? Here Are the Top All In One Car Seats in 2023
For parents who invest in the future and love to make a statement with a cool looking car seat, a real big kid seat
For parents who want the safest car seat on the market and are fed up with buying the next stage seat before time is due
For parents who value the ultimate comfort and snug tight fit while knowing it’s amongst the safest car seats on the market
#1 Britax One4Life ClickTight – Best All In One Car Seat Overall
We have a WINNER!
If you don’t want to frequently buy new car seats and learn how to install them over and over again, then this Britax One4Life is the right pick for you.
Britax was serious when it named it One4Life; it will serve your child for 10 years easily, and maybe even a sibling will be able to use it as well. Now, that’s how you save money in the long run.
Britax is synonymous with safety. It has all the safety features needed to keep your child safe, no matter what. Plus, it has an extended rear-facing option as well.
What more can I say? It’s comfortable and easy to wash. Plus, and this is a huge plus: the installation is super easy. You will get it right and tight every time.
Here is why it’s top of my list:
- The One and Only Car Seat You Will Ever Need: You name it, this car seat has it all. From high safety ratings to luxury comfort and extended rear-facing, it has everything you will ever need for the years to come.
- No More Donations in the Swear Jar: Finally, a car seat that made it effortless to get the perfect installation every time without sounding like a foul-mouth sailor!
- Built to Last: Britax was serious about the 10-year daily use; there are only quality materials that will serve you well for many years to come.
Here are a few drawbacks that you might want to check out:
Depending on your child’s size, it might be too big. For some small infants, this seat might be too big and a carrier would be a much better option.
I miss the anti-rebound bar on this model. To be totally transparent, there’s no way for the seat to flip forward if it was installed correctly.
This Britax won the best award for many reasons, such as the top-of-the-line safety, comfy, and softness, and the extended rear-facing, to name a few. It’s really the first and last seat you will ever have to buy for your child.
Since it checks all the boxes, many parents want this same exact model, so no wonder why the stocks are so low. You need to move fast to get one, act now!
If you’re looking for something cheaper, check out #2 on my list.
- It’s easy to install, and it’s impossible to mess it up
- Extremely durable it will last for ten years and serve several kids
- Finally, a Britax car seat that allows machine washing the material
- It’s pricey and if you plan to buy more than one you need a serious budget
- It’s large and heavy anything for safety
#2 Chicco Fit4 – Best All-in-One Convertible Car Seat
You can’t go wrong with the Chicco Fit4. It is an investment for the long haul. Plus, it will give you peace of mind as it’s the safest all-in-one car seat you can buy.
Besides serving your child from infancy all the way up to the young adult stage, this car seat is super comfortable. Since it’s a bit higher, your child will be able to see a lot more and will enjoy the trip without throwing tantrums.
Chicco has thought about everything with this car seat. It has all the safety features you will ever need, and it’s roomy, so even the wildest child will find its place. Plus, the installation is a breeze.
Once you install the seat, you don’t have to move it until the next stage is needed. Best of all, this is the only installation you have to learn.
Here’s why it’s a must-buy:
- The First and Last Car Seat that You Will Need: It’s a 4-in-1 car seat, which means it will serve your child from infancy all the way up to young adult age
- Excellent View: Since this car seat is higher than the others, your child will have a better view, so you can focus on driving and not trying to calm them down
- Wild Child Approved: I have a regular on-the-move and on-the-go child, and he was perfectly relaxed and quiet in this seat, probably because it’s so roomy
Here are a few drawbacks that you might want to check out:
There’s no beating around the bush: this is a big car seat, so you won’t be swapping it between vehicles, and you won’t be doing 3 across with it.
It’s not that sleeping-infant-friendly. Because of its size and weight, you won’t be able to carry your sleeping child inside your home with this seat, so a baby carrier might be a better fit.
All in all, if you want to invest in a car seat that serves your child until the seat belt is needed, the Chicco Fit4 will be a great option. Not only is it the safest car seat, but down the road, it doesn’t look like a baby seat, so your enlightened child won’t be embarrassed.
Since it’s a popular car seat for these reasons, you need to act quickly if you don’t want to wait for the next shipment. You see, these car seats are selling like hotcakes, and only a few of them are in stock.
- This car seat is the first and the last one you will have to buy, a real money saver in the long run
- Thanks to the QR codes on the side you get access to instant help through videos
- Kids love it because it’s so comfortable
- It takes up a lot of space the front might suffer
- It’s not cheap you will need a budget
#3 Maxi-Cosi Magellan XP – Best Rated All-in-One Car Seat
Our job as parents is to protect our children at any age. This is where the Maxi Cosi Magellan comes into play. No matter the age of your beautiful child, it will be the perfect fit, and it will serve them for years to come.
It’s highly rated for all the safety features. I even know moms who got rear-ended while being stopped and their child was perfectly fine after the accident. This simple story beats all other recommendations.
It will be the only car seat you will ever need because you can use it from infancy and the warranty lasts for 10 years. That’s a hell of a money saver!
Here is why it’s top of my list:
- It’s the only car seat ever needed: When my daughter rides in this seat, she’s nothing but smiles. Can you ask for more?
- Highly Rated: Let it be NTSB or the insurance industry, they highly recommend this seat because it’s the safest for your child.
- The First and Last Seat Ever Needed: This is truly a one-of-a-kind seat that will grow with your child, from infancy to young adulthood.
Here are a few drawbacks that you might want to check out:
I don’t know what Maxi Cosi was thinking with these tiny cup holders. Sure, kids don’t need huge ones, but it’s extremely hard to find a bottle that would fit. Although, it’s a great place to store toys.
Another blooper with the Magellan is that the harness straps twist, which is normally not a problem, but when you have a fussy child, things get complicated.
As you have seen, this is the best Maxi Cosi car seat for your child. From safety to comfort and ease of installation, you have it all. So, what are you waiting for? It’s a very hot product, and they can barely keep it in stock, so you need to move fast if you want it.
- It was crash tested in real life and the baby safe and sound
- It’s one of the roomiest car seats you can get there’s space for the driver as well
- It keeps infants and up to 10-year-old kids safe
- It’s heavy bulky and no way you can do three-way across
- It has a steep learning curve
#4 Graco 4Ever DLX – Best All in One Baby Car Seat
“Mommy, what was that Big Bang?”
This incident happened with my sister in law. She was taking her 4-year old daughter home. It was the usual commute. Then all of a sudden, an SUV smashed into them head-on.
The impact was loud. The airbags exploded, protecting the mother. The front of the car twisted and bent to an unnatural angle. It wasn’t over yet.
There was so much energy during the crash that the car spun out to oncoming traffic, and all their tires exploded.
When everything went quiet, then the little girl asked what has happened. She was the lucky one. There wasn’t a scratch on her. Her mother wasn’t that lucky. She had a broken nose and a few cuts, so she ended up in the hospital. My niece was going to kindergarten the next day.
The Graco 4Ever was tested in a real crash, and it has passed with flying colors. Being an all in one car seat, it caters to infants who are just 4 pounds up to 120 pounds. For those who want to do extended rear-facing, it will be possible up to 40 pounds in this car seat.
Since this car seat caters to kids this small, then accidents and spills will be all too common. They have a RapidRemove system. The cover with the Graco 4ever comes up in a matter of seconds. After that, you put it in the washing machine, and it will be good as new.
It has a cool look to it. The Graco 4Ever is a good all in one car seat because it’s safe, give you great mileage for the money, and it’s easy to wash.
- It’s easy to install might be the easiest of them all
- No more rethreading the straps ever
- The fabric removal is super-fast
- The straps tangle up too fast, and it’s a pain to undo them with a protesting child
- The cup holders fall off way too easily.
You may also like: Top rated car seats for five year olds
#5 Diono Radian 3RXT – Best All in One Seat for Three Across
This incident happened with a friend of mine. Father and son were on their daily commute. The little one was in the back, staying quiet. Everything was the same old, same old until they crossed a faithful intersection.
Another driver ran the red light. The impact was unavoidable. Their van got hit from the side. The collision happened on the same side where the child was sitting. The metal bent and the glass shattered. The bang was loud and scary. The front of their car was absolutely destroyed.
The airbags protected the father, and the Diono Radian kept the boy safe. The father had a few bruises while his son didn’t even have a scratch on him.
This Diono Radian, all in one car seat, has many things going for it. First of all, it looks cool. Kids will love it. All the color combinations are breathtaking. They went overboard with the color scheme.
It caters to infants as low as 5 pounds up to 120 pounds. You can do generously extended rear-facing up to 45 pounds. Besides all this, it has a narrow profile, so you will be able to do 3 across with ease.
The Diono Radian has some great safety features. The core is made out of steel, and there’s some good side impact protection.
It’s hard to believe, but the Diono Radian is foldable so you can take it with you on the plane. It’s FAA approved.
The Diono Radian 3RXT is one of the best all in one car seats you can choose if you want it to be able to do 3 across.
- Finally, a car seat where the baby isn’t slouching or sliding down
- It’s lightweight and easy to move around
- It’s soft and padded plus it comes with side impact protection
- The gray fabric is not that stain friendly
- You can’t remove the fabric; the only solution is spot cleaning.
#6 Evenflo Symphony Elite – Best Affordable All in One Car Seat
The Evenflo Symphony is the most budget-friendly All in one car seat you can buy. Now, this is not a cheap car seat, but it’s more affordable than the rest above.
They made the cover material nice and plush. It’s so soft, not like the other scratchy types with other brands.
Being an all in one car seat, this will be the last one you have to buy. It caters to infants who are at least 5 pounds all the way up to 110 pounds.
By far, the Symphony has the simplest install from the all. It’s so easy that even grandparents with arthritis will be able to install it perfectly. For more car seats for grandparents check out the car seats for grandparents reviews page. Their secret is the ratchet system. Using the ratchet, you won’t need any force, and you can make the car seat 3x tighter than with other brands.
The all in one car seats have a long expiration date around 10 years or so. They have used good materials because they are getting a hell of a beating. The cover can be easily lifted, and machine washed. Accidents can happen with all kids. So as a parent, you need to know ahead of time how easy it is to clean after them.
Evenflo Symphony Elite is the best budget all in one car seat that you can get.
- The latch system after you got used to it it’s amazing
- All in one car seat that protects your little one from 4 to 120 pounds
- Proudly made in the USA
- Shallow and bad cup holders they fly around at their own will
- It’s bulky, and you won’t be moving it around after the install
Buyer’s Guide for the Best All in One Seats
That was some list, huh? I also love to over-deliver. So I was thinking about what could help you the most. I concluded that a buyer’s guide would be a great bonus to add. Maybe you’re planning to add more kids to the family, and avoiding the whole week long searching and sifting here’s a simple go-to list.
Now before we get to that, there are two important tips that I want to share with you.
The first one is related to the car seat’s position. Not all spots in the car are equal. There are safer ones than others. The most protective place for your child is in the middle of the car. The truth is that’s not possible for many parents. Here’s the second safest place which is behind the driver.
As for the second tip, it’s related to the installation. Many car seats in the US are not properly installed. This means that they are not giving the best protection possible. So if you want to be extra sure about the mounting, you can get a second opinion from a licensed professional.
Lately, Amazon started offering this service for a fee.
Now let’s get this buyer’s guide started.
Safety is the #1 concern for all parents. I know that comes at a price, but can you put a price on your child’s head? My advice to you is to get the best protection that you can afford.
Now all car seats are safe on the market since they passed the government test. So you can’t go wrong with them. Indeed, some brands went overboard with protection, while others have barely passed the standards.
All car seats have front and rear collision protection. Yet this is not enough. More and more start to add side impact protection (SIP). And a handful of them offers rollover protection.
You need to know this ahead of time if you want to save some money. These car seats aren’t cheap. The best way to save money is by using it as long as possible. This is what I call mileage.
Infant carriers are the worst because they are outgrown so fast. Yet they have their own unique advantages. Also, in this section, you can check out if they offer extended rear-facing mode.
Getting the right install is crucial. Remember that most car seats are poorly installed. From all the car seats listed above, only the Maxi Cosi is tricky to get installed. The rest is quite easy.
All brands strive to get the installation as easy and effortless as possible. With the new iterations, they are getting there.
All in one car seats cater to the very young up to young adults. There’s one thing certain of kids. They have accidents, and they make a mess. So it’s good to know how easy it is to remove the cover and how washable it is.
From the list above, they are all the same.
This is the end of my buyer’s guide. If you like, put it to good use.
All in One Car Seat Reviews Conclusions
We have reached the end of the Best All In One Car Seat article. It was a long trip. I hope you learned a lot from it.
By now you should know which car seat is the best fit for you. Now it’s your turn to get the right one. Also, take action because last time I’ve checked the stocks were running low
If you want to share your thoughts or ideas, you can do it by leaving a comment below.
What is the safest group 1 car seat?
The safest group 1 car seat is the Cybex Aton 2. This infant car seat has had the highest safety crash test score. So no matter what happens your little one will be kept safe. Followed closely behind by Peg Perego Primo Viaggio.
What is the number 1 rated car seat?
|Best Infant||Doona Infant Car Seat||Infant|
|Best Convertible||Diono Radian||Convertible|
|Best 3 in 1||Graco 4Ever DLX||3 in 1|
|Best Booster||Graco Extend2Fit||Booster|
|Best All in One||Chicco Fit4||All in One|
Is all-in-one car seat good?
Yes, the all-in-one car seat is a great choice for those who want to save money in the long run or have a bigger family. Safetywise there are just as safe as other car seats that are for different age ranges. It will be the only you will ever buy because it will grow with your child.
What is the best 2023 car seat to buy?
The best car seats to buy in 2023 are:
Doona Infant Car Seat – Best Infant and Newborn Car Seat
Diono Radian 3R – Best Convertible Car Seat
Graco SlimFit 3 in 1 Car Seat – Best 3 in 1 Car Seat
Graco Extend2Fit Convertible Car Seat – Most Affordable Convertible Car Seat
Graco Tranzitions – Best 3 in 1 Harness Booster Seat
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):
What is the safest all in one car seat?
The safest all in one car seat is the Britax One4Life ClickTight All-in-One Car Seat.
Are all in one car seats worth it?
All in one car seats are worth it because they will be the first and last car seats you have to ever buy. They are pricier in the beginning but you save money over the years.
What is the best 4 in 1 car seat?
The best 4 in 1 car seat is the Chicco Fit4 4-in-1 Convertible Car Seat.
Which car seats didn’t make it on the Best All-In-One Car Seats list?
These seats didn’t make the cut: safety 1st grow and go belt-positioning booster seat, Graco extend2fit convertible car seats.
What is the expiration date for all-in-one car seats?
Typically for these car seats is 10 years. Other car seats like the high-back booster seat with head support have the same 10 years of use. For example, a rear-facing seat like the infant car seat has less around 3 to 5 years. Convertible car seats are known for having decent usage but nowhere near 10 years. The 10 year expiration date applies to belt-positioning booster seat and backless booster seat.
What are the weight limits for these all in 1 car seats?
The weight limits change from model to model. For example the weight range for a convertible seat is 20 to 65 pounds. The upper weight limit for rear-facing mode is 120 pounds. This 120 pounds limit applies to backless booster seats, belt-positioning booster booster seats and booster mode in general. By getting these convertible seats you’re getting many years of use. With many years of use you will be saving money in the long run. Since the weight limit is so high the child can use it until 12 years old. The rear facing weight limit is the same for the 3 in 1 like the all in one car seat. The graco extend2fit rear facing weight limit is 40 lbs (50 pounds). For the clek foonf rear facing weight limit is 40 lbs. The graco extend2fit comes with a leg rest which provides extra comfort for your child. The weight limits for the nuna rava are the same.
Can these best all in 1 car seats be considered as an infant car seat?
The all in one car seats cater to infants. So you can consider them as an infant car seat but you won’t be able to move them around. They are known for ease of use. And are quite comfortable with two cup holders.
Can you fit three across or do they have a slim design?
Yes there are a few high-back booster car seats and convertible car seats that have a slim design and you can do three across. Backless booster seats have a slim design. The best car seat from above is the Diono Radian 3RXT which allows to fit three across.
Which car seat from these best all in 1 seats has the best car seat safety features?
When it comes to car seat safety features the Graco 4ever takes the lead. But all car seats from above have high safety standards. Even the best convertible car seat has side impact protection. As the child grows you have to adjust the recline positions. Plus most of these best convertible car seats have no-rethread harness. The easy installation comes by default. When you’re selecting the baby gear make sure it has side impact protection and eps foam. The latch system is an extra bonus and there’s the vehicle seat belt installation for the back seat.
How do you keep your child in rear-facing position the longest?
To keep your child in rear-facing mode as long as possible you have choose a car seat that allows rear facing for extended periods of time. The Graco and the grow and go has some good options and the Diono Radian is good as well.
How do you install these best allin-one car seats on the back seat?
The back seat is the preferred way for forward facing booster mode. Keep in mind the weigh and height limitations for backless booster mode. Typically you can use the latch connectors or the seat belt. Now for ease of use the latch system is the best. Booster seat mode can only be tightened with the seat belt. Make sure the recline position is set to the default. Luckily all the seats above are no rethread harness.
What kind of features you should look when buying the best all-in 1 car seat?
It’s preferred that these seats should do both forward facing and rear-facing mode. Keep in mind to check for side impact protection. The seat cover should be machine washable. The seat pad should be machine washable. If you have multiple car options it will be super easy to swap to forward facing mode from the back seat. As your child grows adjust the harness straps. The harness and headrest should be interlinked so when you adjust one the other is adjusted as well. Also make sure you check out the installation videos side by side. For the installation you can use the vehicle seat belt or the latch system. As you know the seat belt installation is finicky but one thing that helps is the seat belt lock.
What would be a good alternative for these 3 in 1, 4 in 1 and all in one car seat?
Good alternatives would be the: clek foonf rear facing forward facing center seat, graco extend2fit high back booster, maxi cosi pria 85 max infant car seats, nuna rava, britax boulevard clicktight, graco 4ever, britax marathon clicktight rear facing forward facing center seat, chicco nextfit zip infant seat, britax emblem belt positioning booster seat. The thing with budget friendly car seats is that may not offer the right protection. If you’re still looking for budget friendly car seats here’s the quick list: nuna rava infant seats, graco extend2fit and the clek foonf.
What are the weight limits for the (3 in 1) all in one car seats?
The rear facing and forward facing weight limits for these car seats are quite similar. For example for the clek foonf it’s 40 lbs.
What kind of safety features do these rear facing position and forward facing car seats have?
When it comes to safety features I’ve only picked the top of the line. They all have passed the government safety standards. It’s also a great idea to have sufficient leg room for the child and sufficient leg room for the front row. The car seat model like the nuna rava comes with a load leg. Which offers extra protection. The headrest positions and the shoulder strap positions are adjustable. There’s no rethread harness. The seat belt installation is a good option if you don’t have the latch system. The chest clips should go below armpit levels. The seat cover should be washing machine safe. The harness holders and harness straps can be hidden when they are not in use.
What makes all in one car seats (all in one seat) comfortable?
Comfortable all in one car seats (all in one seat) have this in common: there are minimized head slump, six recline positions or even seven recline positions (recline angles), adjustable shoulder straps, memory foam, machine washable cover, two cup holders or even rotating cup holders, body pillows, adjustable headrest, adjustable torso, easy to install, easyclick latch system, crotch strap, cup holder, extended height limit, multiple headrest positions, removable head support, advanced side impact protection these would be the key features. Besides being a comfortable car seat (comfortable ride) it has convenient features such as accurate fit and added safety features like: easyclick latch system, forward facing five point harness, maximum weight limit increased, passed all federal safety standards, comfy seat bottom, washable seat pad and seat’s harness, belt lock off, belt positioning booster mode, air protect, four recline positions, easy to install, the seat meets all child passenger safety and federal safety standards, steel reinforced frame.
Why are graco car seats so popular?
The all in one seat like the graco 4ever is so popular it comes with multiple functions like: forward facing car seat, forward facing harness booster mode, backless booster seat mode, it follows the child’s growth, it serves as convertible seat in rear facing seat mode, it also allows extended rear facing seat options, It’s one of the safest seats and car seats of 2023. For new parents who want a new car seat (new seats) this is ideal because it’s affordable which means if you need to buy multiple car seats (multiple seats) it will be the proper fit for most vehicles. Also make sure you have it installed properly. It’s a little known fact that these all in one car seats your child will ride safely with a secure installation thanks to the rigorous crash tests. After multiple crash tests the air protect system kept the dummy safe. The crash forces forces were dissipated during the crash tested and these can be seen in the crash test results. It will accommodate children up to the age limit thanks to the adjustable headrest, adjustable torso and the headrest can be adjusted in one motion while other seats don’t have this. As a child safe convertible seat they will be in the correct position thanks to the easyclick latch system in forward facing position. This highback booster might not fit in small cars and smaller cars especially having three seats across it might be a too tight fit. This baby gear will accommodate children from birth to booster seat age. The only car seat that is like this all in one car seats can be found at maxi cosi. When buying multiple seats you want to save as much money as possible this is where an all in one seat will keep your child correctly in place and also will keep your child comfortable in rear facing harness and forward facing seat mode while still not being a burden on your budget.
What’s the difference between an all in one seat and forward facing highback booster seat?
The difference between a forward facing highback booster seat and all in one car seats is the time you use it. Highback booster is from 3-5 upward and the all in one is from birth. After secure installation your child will ride safely even in rear facing harness using the child restraint. Both you and your child will ride in style thanks to this baby gear. The cup holder is a great addition and the adjustable headrest, adjustable torso are great comfort increasing perks.
What’s an all in one convertible car seat?
An all in one convertible car seat is simply offers forward facing mode with forward facing harness system and rear facing car seat installation in rear facing position
Does the all in one convertible car seat really have ten years of warranty?
Yes it’s true you are getting ten years of warranty with the forward facing mode and rear facing car seat plus they are the most popular car seats. The crash test results speak for themselves. These seats have faired flawlessly in the crash test results. These car seats have all the safety features like: steel frame; forward facing harness system; easy installation; keeping a growing child comfy; latch connectors for easy installation; one second attachment; belt positioning harness holders; memory foam seat; integrated belt lock off child restraint; multiple reclining positions; steel reinforced frame; machine washable covers and additional safety features such as 5 point harness; one second attachment which the child outgrows only at the last stage; comfy and soft seat bottom and passing crash test results. With multiple car seats a machine washable cover is an absolute must. The belt positioning booster is the only seat with seat belts installation and it will protect the child’s head thanks to the steel frame and installed in the seat correctly in most vehicles (vehicle properly).
Are all in one car seats worth it?
Yes, all in one car seats are worth it. These are the safest convertible car seats on the market. Actually there are ten years of warranty included so you’ll get plenty of use out of them compared to other car seats that might even cost you more money than one all in one seat.
What is the best all in one car seat?
The best all in one car seat is the Britax One4Life ClickTight All-in-One Convertible Car Seat. If you are looking for the safest convertible car seats it will be hard to get around the Britax One4Life ClickTight All-in-One Convertible Car Seat. The ten years of warranty, steel frame and forward facing harness system makes this baby gear number one choice in safety features.
Which are the top rated all in one car seats?
The top rated all in one car seats are:
- Doona Infant
- Diono Radian
- Graco SlimFit
- Graco Extend2Fit
- Graco Tranzitions
Are all in one car seat reviews positive?
The all in one car seat reviews are very positive. They have been tested and proven to be safe for kids of almost all sizes.
What is the safest all in one car seat?
The safest all in one car seat is the Britax One4Life ClickTight All-in-One Convertible Car Seat.
Is it worth buying all in one car seat?
Yes because it’s the most economical choice for the long run. Even though an all in one carseat costs more than others you will need to buy it once and enjoy the use and the savings. One of the safest and real money savers would either be the graco 3 in 1 car seat or the graco all in one car seat.
How long are all-in-one car seats good?
All-in-one car seats are good for 10-12 years and 10 would be the most common use. You can check it on the back of the seat to see the expiration date.
Last Updated on December 6, 2022 by Danny Reid